M11

Explain the movement of sand parallel to the beach by the process of longshore drift?

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Describe how seasonality of wave energy causes seasonality in the beach profile?

Explain how equilibrium between the swash and backswash determine the slope of sandy beach?

Predict how changes in wave energy and sediment permeability will affect the equilibrium slop of the beach?

Describe the components of beach system.

Explain how sand moved between the components of the beach system.

Describe the general features of barrier island.

Describe the dynamics and features of tide-dominated and wave-dominated inlets and what determines which one will form?

Describe the purpose and design principles of groins, jetties, breakwater, seawalls, and beach nourishment?

M12

Describe the difference between foreshocks, mainshocks, and aftershocks, and how they are recognized.

Explain how seismic waves are recorded by seismograms.

Estimate the distance from to the epicenter of an earthquake based on Travel Time Curves and the time-gap between the arrival of P- and S-waves.

Explain what earthquake magnitude measures.

Explain how the number of earthquakes that occur in a given time period is related to magnitude, and apply this to predict the number of earthquakes that will likely occur.

Explain where and why seismic waves are amplified in sediments.

Explain the conditions under which liquefaction occurs and describe the evidence for liquefaction in the form of sand boils.

Locate the epicenter of an earthquake and estimate the sense of motion along strike-slip faults using focal mechanisms determined from first motions on seismograms.

M13

Describe the orientation of rock layers using strike and dip terminology.

Describe the geometry and dynamics of normal, reverse, strike-slip faults, and oblique faults, and identify plate tectonic settings where each occurs.

Recognize all types of dip-slip faults in cross-section, and identify the hanging wall, foot wall, and sense of motion. Recognize strike-slips in plan view and distinguish right-lateral from left-lateral faults.

Describe geologic folds using the terms “limb”, “axis”, and “axial plane” Recognize synclines, anticlines, domes, basins, plunging anticlines, and plunging synclines on geologic map, and make inferences about the strike and dip of beds and age of beds based on the outcrop pattern.

Determine the sense of motion on faults in cross-section and plan view. Relate faults to the types of stress that produced them.

The 2017 Sierra Leone Mudflow Essay